Hazelnut, European, (Corylus avellana) Filbert

Hazelnut, European, (Corylus avellana) Filbert

Exposure

Full sun to part shade. Zone 3 and warmer, unless noted.

Soil

Grows best in well-drained, loamy soils with regular moisture.

Growth Habits

Medium to fast growing multiple stemmed shrubs or small trees growing from 12-20 feet tall and often forming a dense thicket. Hazels have quite ornamental catkins through the winter that fill out and color up in early spring. The nuts develop in late summer and can be harvested up to one month before they would be ripe on the plant and ripening indoors to avoid them becoming wildlife food. Hazels are a host plant for the truffle, our most delectable mushroom. Two matched varieties are needed for nut production.

Pollination: Hazelnut pollination is more complex than most of our Useful Plants. Hazelnuts have both male and female flowers. To keep the tree from pollinating itself, the female flowers will not be pollinated by pollen that is too similar, making the varieties incompatible. In addition, the male and female flowers open at different times, so the pollination can be one sided. Of the varieties we carry, these are the best pollination groups:

  • Jefferson, Theta, Eta
  • Yamhill, Gamma, Jefferson, Epsilon (late pollinator for Yamhill)

(The first variety has the best nuts, the second is its best pollinator, additional varieties will pollinate with one or the other of the first two. For best pollination, add varieties in the order listed.)

Landscape Uses

Makes a reliable shrub for foundation plantings, shrub borders or hedges. It makes an excellent companion plant in the orchard or shrub border due to its ability to fix nitrogen.

Usefulness

Produces small to medium-sized, flavorful, very nutritional nuts that go so well with chocolate. The wood is highly valued for crafts for being tough, flexible, and durable for use in wattle fencing or basketry.

Available Varieties

'Dorris' - Newest OSU variety with complete resistance to Eastern Filbert Blight. A fairly large, round nut, useful for inshell marketing or processing. The kernel quality is such that it will command a premium price. The flavor is exceptionally good, it blanches and has very few blank, defective or moldy kernels. A naturally small tree, only 10-12 feet, yet as productive as a Barcelona tree twice its size. Pollinates with all listed varieties.

'Eta' - Early season disease-resistant pollinator for Jefferson.

‘Jefferson’ - immunity to Eastern Filbert Blight disease and high resistance to big bud mite. Produces a heavy yield of large flavorful nuts that fill their shells well. A late bloomer. Pollinates best with Theta, and some with Yamhill and Gamma.

'Theta' - Most recent blight immune release from OSU. Late pollinator for Jefferson Hazelnut. Since Jefferson has a long bloom period and its female flowers are receptive late into spring, the male flowers of Theta will increase yields for Jefferson, especially when used with other Jefferson pollinators such as Gem, Halle's Giant, Yamhill or Gamma. Small to medium sized nuts.

‘Yamhill’ - The best kernel variety available at this time that has complete immunity to Eastern Filbert Blight. A small tree, productive of nice round nuts that are early ripening. Pollinates with Delta, Gamma, Dorris, or York.

'York' - Productive of average sized nuts of good kernel quality with few defects. Tree is fairly compact and is an excellent mid season pollen producer over a long period and is compatible with all other listed varieties. Named after York of Lewis and Clark fame. New OSU release with complete resistance to Eastern Filbert Blight disease.

Pricing Information

$36.00/3 gal, $45.00/5 gal, $60.00/7 gal (not all varieties available in all sizes)